Impact of HAI's
Revenue Impact of HAI's (Healthcare Associated Infections)
- The common perception of HAI's as cost neutral is false.
- HAI's reduce overall net margins by $5,018 per infected patient.
- Loss is primarily due to increased length of stay (LOS) reimbursement at a lower rate than it costs.
In 2005, average HAI added 18 days to LOS
Murphy, APIC Briefing, Feb 2007
Nephros Dual-Stage Ultrafilter .005 Micron Water Filter Frequently Asked Questions
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- What is “water filtration”?
- Why is this important?
- What are some of the harmful bio-contaminants found in a water supply?
- How do bio-contaminants enter a water supply?
- What does “Dual Stage” Mean?
- What is cold sterilization?
- What does the Nephros DSU remove from water?
- How does it compare to other filters?
- Why not use Chlorine?
- Why not use Heat?
- Does the DSU affect taste?
- What will the DSU protect me from?
- Why do I see water restriction signs in Hospitals?
1.What is “water filtration”?
Water filtration is the removal of contaminants from water to produce drinking water that is pure enough for human consumption, or ultrapure water for various industrial and medical uses. Substances that are removed during a filtration process may include parasites such as giardia or cryptosporidium; bacteria such as legionella; algae, viruses, fungi, various minerals (including toxic metals such as lead and copper), and man-made chemical pollutants. Many contaminants can be dangerous, but -- depending on the quality standards -- others are removed to improve the water's smell, taste, and appearance.
2. Why is this important?
It is not possible to tell whether water is safe to drink just by looking at it. Simple procedures such as boiling or the use of a household charcoal filter are not sufficient for treating water from an unknown source. Even natural spring water—considered safe for all practical purposes in the 1800s—must now be tested before determining what kind of treatment is needed.
3. What are some of the harmful bio-contaminants found in a water supply?
Many bio-contaminants such as legionella pneumophilia appear in fresh water naturally. This bacterium is reponsible for legionnaire’s desease. Legionnaire’s disease is an acute lung condition that can lead to death. Legionnaire’s desease can be caused by breathing aerosolized water droplets, as may happen in a shower or from a respirator. Other bacteria such as e. coli and salmonella may be present in a water supply. Contaminants cn also include parasites, viruses and bilogical toxins such as ricin and botulin toxin.
4. How do bio-contaminants enter a water supply?
Bio-contaminants may enter a water supply through a variety of sources. Most bacteria contamination comes from sewage or livestock operations, as well as runoff from other agricultural operations. Food processing waste runoff also adds pathogens. Many micro-organisms appear naturally in nature but may rapidly multiply under conditions favorable to their growth..
5. What does “Dual Stage” Mean?
In the Nephros Dual Stage Ultrafilter there are two redundant filtration steps, or stages. Each stage is identical. Each stage removes virtually all biological contaminants. If a failure should occur in one stage, the other stage acts as a “backup” and ensures filter safety and integrity. An added advantage of dual stages is that the user can visually verify that the filter is performing correctly. The Nephros DSU is the only point of use water filter with this type of configuration offering these advantages.
6. What is cold sterilization?
Sterilization refers to the elimination of all transmissible agents (such as bacteria and viruses) from a surface, food, water or other fluid. There are many different methods to achieve sterilization including heat, chemicals and radiation. In this case, Cold Sterilization refers to eliminating transmissible agents (biological toxins) by filtration, without the use of the other methods.
7. What does the Nephros DSU remove from water?
The Nephros DSU, with it’s dual 0.005 micron filters, removes virtually all biological contaminants such as parasites, bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi and various other bio-toxins. It does not remove chemicals, minerals, salts or chlorine (i.e., “disolved solids”).
8. How does it compare to other filters?
Nephros believes that, with Dual Stage technology and 0.005 micron filtration, we have developed the safest and the only water filter on the market that can effectively deliver point of use biocontaminant-free water for drinking and bathing. Bacteria sizes range from 0.5 to 5 microns; viruses and other bio-toxins are considerably smaller, although the vast majority of known biological toxins are .005 microns in size or larger.
9. Why not use Chlorine?
Although Chlorine is a strong oxidant that kills may micro-organisms, it has drawbacks. It is a toxic gas and there is danger of a release associated with its use. A major drawback to using chlorine is that it can react with organic compounds in the water to form potentially harmful levels of the chemical by-products trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids, both of which are carcinogenic and regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Although chlorine is effective in killing bacteria, it has limited effectiveness against protozoans that form cysts in water (for example, giardia lamblia and cryptosporidium, both of which are pathogenic). Chlorine can also be extremely corrosive to pipes; in old plumbing systems, high chlorine concentrations can disolve welds and cause plumbing system leaks.
10. Why not use Heat?
While high temperatures (exceeding 140 degrees F.) can destroy many micro-organisms, there are drawbacks to this approach as well. It requires a great deal of energy to heat large volumes of water to this level. In addition, there are a number of bio-elements (such as endotoxin) that are unaffected by heat. Finally, hot water is dangerous! To treat water effectively with heat, the water should be heated near the outlet to a very high temperature, and then passed through an anti-scalding device to ensure it is a safe temperature for use; anti-scald systems are an expensive approach, and have not been shown to be 100% effective in guaranteeing water safety.
13. Why do I see water restriction signs in Hospitals?
The hospital is trying to protect you from infection that can result from contaminants in the local water supply. The Nephros DSU is helping to address this problem by effectively filtering the water before the patient is exposed to it.